§ 1351 - Definitions
As used in this title, the following terms have the following meanings:
- (a) "Association" means a nonprofit corporation or unincorporated association created for the purpose of managing a common interest development.
- (b) "Common area" means the entire common interest development except the separate interests therein. The estate in the common area may be a fee, a life estate, an estate for years, or any combination of the foregoing. However, the common area for a planned development specified in paragraph (2) of subdivision (k) may consist of mutual or reciprocal easement rights appurtenant to the separate interests.
- (c) "Common interest development" means any of the following:
- (1) A community apartment project.
- (2) A condominium project.
- (3) A planned development.
- (4) A stock cooperative.
- (d) "Community apartment project" means a development in which an undivided interest in land is coupled with the right of exclusive occupancy of any apartment located thereon.
- (e) "Condominium plan" means a plan consisting of
- (1) a description or survey map of a condominium project, which shall refer to or show monumentation on the ground,
- (2) a three-dimensional description of a condominium project, one or more dimensions of which may extend for an indefinite distance upwards or downwards, in sufficient detail to identify the common areas and each separate interest, and
- (3) a certificate consenting to the recordation of the condominium plan pursuant to this title signed and acknowledged by the following:
- (A) The record owner of fee title to that property included in the condominium project.
- (B) In the case of a condominium project which will terminate upon the termination of an estate for years, the certificate shall be signed and acknowledged by all lessors and lessees of the estate for years.
- (C) In the case of a condominium project subject to a life estate, the certificate shall be signed and acknowledged by all life tenants and remainder interests.
- (D) The certificate shall also be signed and acknowledged by either the trustee or the beneficiary of each recorded deed of trust, and the mortgagee of each recorded mortgage encumbering the property.
Owners of mineral rights, easements, rights-of-way, and other nonpossessory interests do not need to sign the condominium plan. Further, in the event a conversion to condominiums of a community apartment project or stock cooperative has been approved by the required number of owners, trustees, beneficiaries, and mortgagees pursuant to Section 66452.10 of the Government Code, the certificate need only be signed by those owners, trustees, beneficiaries, and mortgagees approving the conversion.
A condominium plan may be amended or revoked by a subsequently acknowledged recorded instrument executed by all the persons whose signatures would be required pursuant to this subdivision.
- (f) A "condominium project" means a development consisting of condominiums. A condominium consists of an undivided interest in common in a portion of real property coupled with a separate interest in space called a unit, the boundaries of which are described on a recorded final map, parcel map, or condominium plan in sufficient detail to locate all boundaries thereof. The area within these boundaries may be filled with air, earth, or water, or any combination thereof, and need not be physically attached to land except by easements for access and, if necessary, support. The description of the unit may refer to (1) boundaries described in the recorded final map, parcel map, or condominium plan, (2) boundaries, either in existence, or to be constructed, such as walls, floors, and ceilings of a structure or any portion thereof, (3) an entire structure containing one or more units, or (4) any combination thereof. The portion or portions of the real property held in undivided interest may be all of the real property, except for the separate interests, or may include a particular three-dimensional portion thereof, the boundaries of which are described on a recorded final map, parcel map, or condominium plan. The area within these boundaries may be filled with air, earth, or water, or any combination thereof, and need not be physically attached to land except by easements for access and, if necessary, support. An individual condominium within a condominium project may include, in addition, a separate interest in other portions of the real property.
- (g) "Declarant" means the person or group of persons designated in the declaration as declarant, or if no declarant is designated, the person or group of persons who sign the original declaration or who succeed to special rights, preferences, or privileges designated in the declaration as belonging to the signator of the original declaration.
- (h) "Declaration" means the document, however denominated, which contains the information required by Section 1353.
- (i) "Exclusive use common area" means a portion of the common areas designated by the declaration for the exclusive use of one or more, but fewer than all, of the owners of the separate interests and which is or will be appurtenant to the separate interest or interests.
- (1) Unless the declaration otherwise provides, any shutters, awnings, window boxes, doorsteps, stoops, porches, balconies, patios, exterior doors, doorframes, and hardware incident thereto, screens and windows or other fixtures designed to serve a single separate interest, but located outside the boundaries of the separate interest, are exclusive use common areas allocated exclusively to that separate interest.
- (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of the declaration, internal and external telephone wiring designed to serve a single separate interest, but located outside the boundaries of the separate interest, are exclusive use common areas allocated exclusively to that separate interest.
- (j) "Governing documents" means the declaration and any other documents, such as bylaws, operating rules of the association, articles of incorporation, or articles of association, which govern the operation of the common interest development or association.
- (k) "Planned development" means a development (other than a community apartment project, a condominium project, or a stock cooperative) having either or both of the following features:
- (1) The common area is owned either by an association or in common by the owners of the separate interests who possess appurtenant rights to the beneficial use and enjoyment of the common area.
- (2) A power exists in the association to enforce an obligation of an owner of a separate interest with respect to the beneficial use and enjoyment of the common area by means of an assessment which may become a lien upon the separate interests in accordance with Section 1367 or 1367.1.
- (l) "Separate interest" has the following meanings:
- (1) In a community apartment project, "separate interest" means the exclusive right to occupy an apartment, as specified in subdivision (d)
- (2) In a condominium project, "separate interest" means an individual unit, as specified in subdivision (f).
- (3) In a planned development, "separate interest" means a separately owned lot, parcel, area, or space.
- (4) In a stock cooperative, "separate interest" means the exclusive right to occupy a portion of the real property, as specified in subdivision (m).
Unless the declaration or condominium plan, if any exists, otherwise provides, if walls, floors, or ceilings are designated as boundaries of a separate interest, the interior surfaces of the perimeter walls, floors, ceilings, windows, doors, and outlets located within the separate interest are part of the separate interest and any other portions of the walls, floors, or ceilings are part of the common areas.
The estate in a separate interest may be a fee, a life estate, an estate for years, or any combination of the foregoing.
- (m) "Stock cooperative" means a development in which a corporation is formed or availed of, primarily for the purpose of holding title to, either in fee simple or for a term of years, improved real property, and all or substantially all of the shareholders of the corporation receive a right of exclusive occupancy in a portion of the real property, title to which is held by the corporation. The owners' interest in the corporation, whether evidenced by a share of stock, a certificate of membership, or otherwise, shall be deemed to be an interest in a common interest development and a real estate development for purposes of subdivision (f) of Section 25100 of the Corporations Code.
A "stock cooperative" includes a limited equity housing cooperative which is a stock cooperative that meets the criteria of Section 33007.5 of the Health and Safety Code.