§ 7151 – Required And Optional Provisions; Number Of Directors

(a) The bylaws shall set forth (unless such provision is contained in the articles, in which case it may only be changed by an amendment of the articles) the number of directors of the corporation, or the method of determining the number of directors of the corporation, or that the number of directors shall be not less than a stated minimum nor more than a stated maximum with the exact number of directors to be fixed, within the limits specified, by approval of the board or the members (Section 5034), in the manner provided in the bylaws, subject to subdivision (e). The number or minimum number of directors may be one or more.

(b) Once members have been admitted, a bylaw specifying or changing a fixed number of directors or the maximum or minimum number or changing from a fixed to a variable board or vice versa may only be adopted by approval of the members (Section 5034).

(c) The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with law or the articles, for the management of the activities and for the conduct of the affairs of the corporation, including but not limited to:

  1. Any provision referred to in subdivision (c) of Section 7132.
  2. The time, place, and manner of calling, conducting, and giving notice of members’, directors’, and committee meetings, or of conducting mail ballots.
  3. The qualifications, duties, and compensation of directors; the time of their election; and the requirements of a quorum for directors’ and committee meetings.
  4. The appointment of committees, composed of directors or nondirectors, or both, by the board or any officer and the authority of any such committees.
  5. The appointment, duties, compensation, and tenure of officers.
  6. The mode of determination of members of record.
  7. The making of reports and financial statements to members.
  8. Setting, imposing, and collecting dues, assessments, and admission and transfer fees.

(d) The bylaws may provide for the manner of admission, withdrawal, suspension, and expulsion of members, consistent with the requirements of Section 7341.

(e) The bylaws may require, for any or all corporate actions (except as provided in paragraphs (1) and (2) of subdivision (a) of Section 7222, subdivision (c) of Section 7615, and Section 8610) the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the members or the members of any class, unit, or grouping of members or the vote of a larger proportion of, or all of, the directors, than is otherwise required by this part. Such a provision in the bylaws requiring such greater vote shall not be altered, amended, or repealed except by such greater vote, unless otherwise provided in the bylaws.

(f) The bylaws may contain a provision limiting the number of members, in total or of any class, which the corporation is authorized to admit.


  1. The bylaws may contain any provision, not in conflict with the articles, to manage and conduct the business affairs of the corporation effective only in an emergency as defined in Section 7140, including, but not limited to, procedures for calling a board meeting, quorum requirements for a board meeting, and designation of additional or substitute directors.
  2. During an emergency, the board may take any action that it determines to be necessary or appropriate to respond to the emergency, mitigate the effects of the emergency, or comply with lawful federal and state government orders, but shall not take any action that requires the vote of the members, unless the required vote of the members was obtained prior to the emergency.
  3. All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws shall remain effective during the emergency, and the emergency bylaws shall not be effective after the emergency ends.
  4. Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws binds the corporation, and shall not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.

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